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# Physic for A level & UTME

Simplifying physics for better understanding for students to excel in ‘A level’ and UTME

## Notes on optics : light waves

Transmission of light Light can travel through a solid, liquid and gas or vacuum. Therefore, it does not need a maternal medium for its transmission. Types of object/substance 1          Opaque object: These are objects that do not allow light to pass through them, e. g wood, stone, table, wall, etc. …

## Notes on simple machine

MACHINES A machine is any device by means of which work can be done more conveniently. Mechanical Advantage (M.A.)   The M.A. of a machine is defined as the ratio of load to the effort Mechanical Advantage (M.A.) = load / effort Velocity Ratio (V.R.)  The velocity ratio V.R. of a …

## How to solve questions on Heat energy for UTME

Question 1 A 2000W electric heater is used to heat a metal object of mass 5kg initially at 10oC. If a temperature rise of 30oC is obtained after 10 min, the heat capacity of the material is{utme 2003} A. 6.0 x 104JoC-1             B. 4.0 x 104JoC-1             C. 1.2 x 104JoC-1                …

## Notes on conduction through liquid and gases

CONDUCTION THROUGH LIQUIDS Electrolysis: Is the chemical change in a liquid due to the flow of electric current. Electrolytes Are liquid that are good conductor of electricity. Non-electrolytes are liquid that are poor conductor of electricity. Application of Electrolysis Electroplating: Is the process of coating metals with another metal in …

## Notes on basics electronics for UTME

Conductors are substances that allow the passage of electricity through them. Insulation is a substance that will not permit the passage of electricity through them. Insulators are material that do not allow the passage of electricity through them. Semi conductors are materials having intermediate electrical conductivity between that of conductors …

## Notes on alternating Current through a Capacitor and Inductor

A.C through a capacitor An alternating voltage V = Vo sin wt when applied across a capacitor C, the current is given by: Both the experiment and theory show that the voltage (V) and the current (I) are out of phase. The current leads the voltage by 90 degree i.e. …

## Notes on heat energy for Cambridge A level and UTME

The law of conservation of energy that the heat we supply does not just disappear. It is usually transformed into some other kind of energy. In this case, the heat supplied to the water is transformed to the internal energy of the water molecules. I shall focus on conservation principle …

## Notes on Surface Tension

The surface of the liquid behave lika a membrane under tension, surface tension arises because the molecules of the liquid exert attractive forces on each other. There is zero net force in a molecule inside the volume of the liquid, but a surface molecule is drawn into the volume. Thus, …