Scheme of Work

JAMB Chemistry Syllabus And Textbook 2021/2022

Candidates writing chemistry in JAMB need to have JAMB syllabus for chemistry for them to know the topics they need to read. And for this reason, I have decided to list the expected topics in chemistry and their sub topics in chemistry that are required for candidates writing this subject in JAMB to read.

JAMB Chemistry Syllabus

Acid, Base, and Salt

Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

  • Distinguish between the properties of acids and bases.
  • Identify the different types of acids and bases.
  • Determine the basicity of acids.
  • Differentiate between acidity and alkalinity using acid/base indicators.
  • Identify the various methods of preparation of salts.
  • Classify different types of salts.
  • Relate degree of dissociation to strength of acids and bases.
  • Relate degree of dissociation to conductance.
  • Perform simple calculations on pH and pOH.
  • Identify the appropriate acid-base indicator.
  • Interpret graphical representation of titration curves.
  • Perform simple calculations based on the mole concept.
  • Balance equations for the hydrolysis of salts.
  • Deduce the properties (acidic, basic, neutral) of the resultant solution.

Content

  • General characteristics and properties of acids, bases and salts; acids/base indicators, basicity of acids, normal, acidic, basic and double salts; An acid defined as a substance whose aqueous solution furnishes H3O+ions or as a proton donor; ethanoic, citric and tartaric acids as examples of naturally occurring organic acids; alums as examples of double salts; preparation of salts by neutralization, precipitation and action of acids on metals; oxides and trioxocarbonate (IV) salts.
  • Qualitative comparison of the conductances of molar solutions of strong and weak acids and bases; relationship between conductance and amount of ions present and their relative mobilities.
  • Ph and Poh scale; Simple calculations.
  • Acid/base titrations.
  • Hydrolysis of salts; Principle, simple examples such as NH4C1, AICI3, Na2CO3, CH3COONa.

Air

Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

  • deduce reason (s) for the existence of air as a mixture.
  • identify the principle involved in the separation of air components.
  • deduce reasons for the variation in the composition of air in the environment.
  • specify the uses of some of the constituents of air.

Content

  • The natural gaseous constituents and their proportion in the air – nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour, carbon (IV) oxide and the noble gases (argon and neon).
  • Air as a mixture and some uses of the noble gas.

Atomic Structure and Bonding

Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

  • distinguish between atom, molecules and ions.
  • assess the contributions of these scientists to the development of the atomic structure.
  • deduce the number of protons, neutrons and electrons from atomic and mass numbers of an atom.
  • apply the rules guiding the arrangement of electrons in an atom.
  • identity common elements exhibiting isotopy;
  • relate isotopy to mass number.
  • perform simple calculations on relative atomic mass.
  • determine the number of electrons in s and p atomic orbitals.
  • relate atomic number to the position of an element on the periodic table.
  • relate properties of groups of elements on the periodic table.
  • identify reasons for variation in properties across the period.
  • differentiate between the different types of bonding.
  • deduce bond types based on electron configurations.
  • relate the nature of bonding to properties of compounds.
  • apply it in everyday chemistry.
  • differentiate between the various shapes of molecules.
  • distinguish between ordinary chemical reaction and nuclear reaction.
  • differentiate between natural and artificial radioactivity.
  • compare the properties of the different types of nuclear radiations.
  • compute simple calculations on the half-life of a radioactive material.
  • balance simple nuclear equation.
  • identify the various applications of radioactivity.

Content

  • The concept of atoms, molecules and ions, the works of Dalton, Millikan, Rutherford, Mosely, Thompson and Bohr.
  • Atomic structure, electron configuration, atomic number, mass number and isotopes; specific examples should be drawn from elements of atomic number 1 to 20.
  • Shapes of s and p orbitals.
  • The periodic table and periodicity of elements.
  • Presentation of the periodic table with a view to recognizing families of elements e.g. alkali metals, halogens, the noble gases and transition metals.
  • The variation of the following properties should be noticed: ionization energy, ionic radii, electron affinity and electronegativity.
  • Chemical Bonding: Electrovalency and covalency, the electron configuration of elements and their tendency to attain the noble gas structure.
  • Hydrogen bonding and metallic bonding as special types of electrovalency and covalency respectively.
  • Coordinate bond as a typ of covalent bond as illustrated by complexes like [Fe(CN)6]3-, [Fe(CN)6]4-, [Cu(NH3)4]2+ and [Ag(NH3)2]+; van der WaalsÂ’ forces should be mentioned as a special type of bonding forces.
  • Shapes of simple molecules: linear ((2, O2C12,HCI and CO2), non-linear (H2O) and tetrahedral. (CH)
  • Radioactivity (elementary treatment only).
  • Nuclear reactions, simple equations, uses and applications of natural and artificial radioactivity.

Chemical Combination

Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

  • perform simple calculations involving formulae, equations/chemical composition and the mole concept.
  • deduce the chemical laws from given expressions/statements/data.
  • interpret graphical representations related to these laws.
  • deduce the stoichiometry of chemical reactions.

Content

  • Stoichiometry.
  • Laws of definite and multiple proportions.
  • Law of conservation of matter.
  • Gay Lussac’s law of combining volumes.
  • Avogadro’s law.
  • Chemical symbols, formulae, equations and their uses.
  • Relative atomic mass based on 12C=12.
  • The mole concept and Avogadro’s number.

Chemical Equilibrium

Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

  • identify the factors that affect the position of equilibrium of a chemical reaction.
  • predict the effects of each factor on the position of equilibrium.
  • determine the effects of these factors on equilibrium constant.

Content

  • Reversible reactions and factors governing the equilibrium position.
  • Dynamic equilibrium.
  • Le Chatelier’s principle and equilibrium constant.
  • Simple examples to include action of steam on iron and N2O4 = 2NO2. No calculation will be required.

Chemistry and Industry

Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

  • classify chemical industri in terms products.
  • identify raw materials for eacindustry.
  • distinguish between fine and heav chemicals.
  • enumerate the relevance of each of theindustries.
  • relate industrial processes to biotechnology.

Content

  • Chemical industries: Types, raw materials and relevancies; Biotechnology.

Electrolysis

Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

  • identify between electrolytes and non- electrolytes.
  • perform calculations based on faraday as a mole of electrons.
  • identify suitable electrodes for different electrolytes.
  • specify the chemical reactions at the electrodes.
  • determine the products at the electrodes.
  • identify the factors that affect the product of electrolysis.
  • specify the different areas of application of electrolysis.
  • identify the various electrochemical cells.
  • calculate electrode potentials using half-cell reaction equations.
  • determine the different areas of applications of electrolytic processes.
  • identify methods used in protecting metals.

Content

  • Electrolytes and non-electrolytes: Faraday’s laws of electrolysis.
  • Electrolysis of dilute H2SO4, aqueous CuSO4, CuCl2 solution, dilute and concentrated NaCl solutions and fused NaCl.
  • Factors affecting discharge of ions at the electrodes.
  • Uses of electrolysis: Purification of metals e.g. copper and production of elements and compounds (Al, Na, O2, Cl2 and NaOH).
  • Electrochemical cells: Redox series (K, Na, Ca, Mg, AI, Zn, Fe, PbII, H, Cu, Hg, Au,) half-cell reactions and electrode potentials. (Simple calculations only).
  • Corrosion as an electrolytic process, cathodic protection of metals, painting, electroplating and coating with grease or oil as ways of preventing iron from corrosion.

Energy Changes

Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

  • determine the types of heat changes (H) in physical and chemical processes.
  • interpret graphical representations of heat changes.
  • relate the physical state of a substance to the degree of orderliness.
  • determine the conditions for spontaneity of a reaction.
  • relate H0, S0 and G0 as the driving forces for chemical reactions.
  • solve simple problems based on the relationships G0= H0 -TS0).

Content

  • Energy changes(H) accompanying physical and chemical changes: dissolution of substances in/ or reaction with water e.g. Na, NaOH, K, NH4Cl. Endothermic (+H) and exothermic (-H) reactions.
  • Entropy as an order-disorder phenomenon: simple illustrations like mixing of gases and dissolution of salts.
  • Spontaneity of reactions: G0 = 0 as a criterion for equilibrium, G greater or less than zero as a criterion for non-spontaneity or spontaneity respectively.

Environmental Pollution

Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

  • identify the different types of pollution and pollutants.
  • specify different sources of pollutants.
  • classify pollutants as biodegradable and non-biodegradable.
  • specify the effects of pollution on the environment.
  • identify measures for control of environmental pollution.

Content

  • Sources and effects of pollutants.
  • Air pollution: Examples of air pollutants such as H2S, CO, SO2, oxides of nitrogen, Chlorofluorocarbons and dust.
  • Water pollution: Sewage and oil pollution should be known.
  • Soil pollution: Oil spillage, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable pollutants.

Kinetic Theory of Matter and Gas Law

Candidates should be able to:

  • apply the theory to distinguish betweensolids, liquids and gases.
  • deduce reasons for change of state.
  • draw inferences based on molecular motion.
  • deduce gas laws from given expressions/statements.
  • interpret graphical representations related to these laws.
  • perform simple calculations based on these laws, equations and relationships.

Content

  • An outline of the kinetic theory of matter: 1. Melting, Vapourization, Boiling, Freezing, condensation in terms of molecular motion and Brownian movement.
  • The laws of Boyle, Charles, Graham and Dalton (law of partialpressure); combined gas law, molar volume and atomicity of gases.
  • The ideal gas equation (PV = nRT).
  • The relationship between vapour density of gases and the relative molecular mass.

Metals and Their Compound

  • General properties of metals.
  • Alkali metals e.g. sodium:  Sodium hydroxide:- Production by electrolysis of brine, its action on aluminium, zinc and lead ions. Uses including precipitation of metallic hydroxides. Sodium trioxocarbonate (IV) and sodium hydrogen trioxocarbonate (IV): Production by Solvay process, properties and uses, e.g. Na2CO3 in the manufacture of glass. Sodium chloride: its occurrence in sea water and uses, the economic importance of sea water and the recovery of sodium chloride.
  • Alkaline-earth metals, e.g. calcium: Calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide and calcium trioxocarbonate (IV); properties and uses. Preparation of calcium oxide from sea shells.The chemical composition of cement and the setting of mortar; test for Ca2+.
  • Aluminium: Purification of bauxite, electrolytic extraction, properties and uses of aluminium and its compounds; Test for A13.
  • Tin: Extraction from its ores; properties and uses.
  • Metals of the first transition series: Characteristic properties: Electron configuration, Oxidation states, Complexion formation, Formation of coloured ions, Catalysis.
  • Iron: extraction from sulphide and oxide ores, properties and uses; different forms of iron and their properties and advantages of steel over iron. Test for Fe2+ and Fe3+.
  • Copper: extraction from sulphide and oxide ores, properties and uses of copper salts, preparation and uses of copper (II) tetraoxosulphate (VI). Test for Cu2+.
  • Alloy: steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze, type- metal, duralumin, soft solder, permallory and alnico(constituents and uses only).

Non-Metals and Their Compound

  • Hydrogen: commercial production from water gas and cracking of petroleum fractions, laboratory preparation, properties, uses and test for hydrogen
  • Halogens: Chlorine as a representative element of the halogen; laboratory preparation, industrial preparation by electrolysis; properties and uses, e.g. water sterilization, bleaching, manufacture of HCl, plastics and insecticides. Hydrogen chloride and Hydrochloric acid: preparation and properties; chlorides and test for chlorides.
  • Oxygen and Sulphur: Oxygen: Laboratory preparation, properties and uses; commercial production from liquid air. Oxides: Acidic,basic, amphoteric and neutral, trioxygen (ozone) as an allotrope and the importance of ozone in the atmosphere. Sulphur: Uses and allotropes; preparation of allotropes is not expected. Preparation, properties and uses of sulphur (IV) oxide; the reaction of SO2 with alkalis; trioxosulphate (IV) acid and its salts; the effect of acids on salts of trioxosulphate (IV), tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid; commercial preparation (contact process only), properties as a dilute acid, an oxidizing and a dehydrating agent and uses; test for SO42-. Hydrogen sulphide: Preparation and Properties as a weak acid, reducing agent and precipitating agent; test for SO42-.
  • Nitrogen: Laboratory preparation. Production from liquid air. Ammonia: Laboratory and industrial preparations (Haber Process only), properties and uses, ammonium salts and their uses, oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen (IV) oxide and trioxonitrate (V) acid; test NH4+. Trioxonitrate (V) acid: Laboratory preparation from ammonia; properties and uses; trioxonitrate (V) salt-action of heat and uses; test for NO3-. Oxides of nitrogen: Properties; the nitrogen cycle.
  • Carbon: Allotropes: uses and properties. Carbon (IV) oxide- Laboratory preparation, properties and uses; action of heat on trioxocarbonate (IV) salts and test for CO32-. Carbon (II) oxide: laboratory preparation, properties including its effect on blood; sources of carbon (II) oxide to include charcoal, fire and exhaust fumes. Coal: different types; products obtained from destructive distillation of wood and coal. Coke: gasification and uses; manufacture of synthetic gas and uses.

Organic Compound

An introduction to the tetravalency of carbon, the general formula, IUPAC nomenclature and the determination of empirical formula of each class of the organic compounds mentioned below:

  • Aliphatic hydrocarbons. 1. Alkanes: Homologous series in relation to physical properties, substitution reaction and a few examples and uses of halogenated products. Isomerism: structural only (examples on isomerism should not go beyond six carbon atoms). Petroleum: composition,fractional distillation and major products; cracking and reforming, Petrochemicals – starting materials of organic syntheses, quality of petrol and meaning of octane number. 2. Alkenes: Isomerism: structural and geometric isomerism, additional and polymerization reactions, polythene and synthetic rubber as examples of products of polymerization and its use in vulcanization. 3. Alkynes: Ethyne – production from action of water on carbides, simple reactions and properties of ethyne.
  • Aromatic hydrocarbons e.g. benzene – structure, properties and uses.
  • Alkanols: Primary, secondary, tertiary – production of ethanol by fermentation and from petroleumby-products. Localexamples of fermentation and distillation, e.g. gin from palm wine and other local sources and glycerol as a polyhydric alkanol. Reactions of OH group – oxidation as a distinguishing test among primary, secondary and tertiary alkanols (Lucas test).
  • Alkanals and alkanones: Chemical test to distinguish between alkanals and alkanones.
  • Alkanoic acids: Chemical reactions; neutralization and esterification, ethanedioic (oxalic) acid as an example of a dicarboxylic acid and benzene carboxylic acid as an example of an aromatic acid.
  • Alkanoates: Formation from alkanoic acids and alkanols – fats and oils as alkanoates. Saponification: Production of soap and margarine from alkanoates and distinction between detergents and soaps.
  • Amines (Alkanamines) Primary,Secondar and tertiary.
  • Carbohydrates: Classification – mono-, di- and polysaccharides; composition, chemical tests for simple sugars and reaction with concentrated tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid. Hydrolysis ofcomplex sugars e.g. cellulose from cotton and starch from cassava, the uses of sugar and starch in the production of alcoholic beverages, pharmaceuticals and textiles.
  • Proteins: Primary structures, hydrolysis and tests (Ninhydrin, Biuret, Millon’s and xanthoproteic) Enzymes and their functions.
  • Polymers: Natural and synthetic rubber; addition and condensation polymerization. Methods of preparation, examples and use Thermoplastic and thermosetting plastics.

Oxidation and Reduction

  • Oxidation in terms of the addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen.
  • Reduction as removal of oxygen or addition of hydrogen.
  • Oxidation and reduction in terms of electron transfer.
  • Use of oxidation numbers. Oxidation and reduction treated as change in oxidation number and use of oxidation numbers in balancing simple equations.
  • IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic compounds using oxidation number.
  • Tests for oxidizing and reducing agents.

Rate of Chemical Reaction

  • Elementary treatment of the following factors which can change the rate of a chemical reaction: Temperature e.g. the reaction between HCI and Na2S2O3 or Mg and HCI. Concentration e.g. the reaction between HCl and Na2S2O3, HCl and marble and the iodine clock reaction, for gaseous systems, pressure may be used as concentration term. Surface area e.g. the reaction between marble and HCI with marble in (i) powdered form (ii) lumps of the same mass. Catalyst e.g. the decomposition of H2O2 or KCIO3 in the presence or absence of MnO2.
  • Reaction rate curves.
  • Activation energy. Qualitative treatment of Arrhenius’ law and the collision theory, effect of light on some reactions e.g. halogenation of alkanes.

Separation of Mixtures and Purification of Chemical Substances

Objectives

Candidates should be able to:

  • distinguish between pure and impure substances.
  • use boiling and melting points as criteriafor purity of chemical substances.
  • distinguish between elements,compounds and mixture.
  • differentiate between chemical and physical changes.
  • identify the properties of thecomponents of a mixture.
  • specify the principle involved in each separation method.
  • apply the basic principle of separation processes in everyday life.

Content

  • Pure and impure substances.
  • Boiling and melting points.
  • Elements, compounds and mixtures.
  • Chemical and physical changes.
  • Separation processes: evaporation, simple and fractional distillation, sublimation, filtration, crystallization, paper and column chromatography, simple and fractional crystallization, magnetization, decantation.

Solubility

  • Unsaturated, saturated and supersaturated solutions: Solubility curves and simple deductions from them, (solubility defined in terms of mole per dm3) and simple calculations.
  • Solvents for fats, oil and paints and the use of such solvents for the removal of stains.
  • False solution (Suspensions and colloids): Harmattan haze and paints as examples of suspensions and fog, milk, aerosol spray, emulsion paints and rubber solution as examples of colloids.

Water

  • Water as a product of the combustion of hydrogen and its composition by volume.
  • Water as a solvent, atmospheric gases dissolved in water and their biological significance.
  • Water as a product of the combustion of hydrogen
  • Hard and soft water: Temporary and permanent hardness and methods of softening hard water
  • Treatment of water for town supply.
  • Water of crystallization, efflorescence, deliquescence and hygroscopy. Examples of the substances exhibiting these properties and their uses.

JAMB Recommended Textbooks for Chemistry

  • New School Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, Ababio, O. Y. (2009), (Fourth edition), Onitsha: Africana FIRST Publishers Limited.
  • Senior Secondary Chemistry, Bajah, S.T.; Teibo, B. O., Onwu, G.; and Obikwere, A. Book 1 (1999), Books 2 and 3 (2000). Lagos: Longman.
  • Understanding Chemistry for Schools and Colleges, Ojokuku, G. O. (2012, Revised Edition), Zaria: Press-On Chemresources.
  • Essential: Chemistry for Senior Secondary Schools, (2008), 2nd Edition, I. A. Odesina, Lagos: Tonad Publishers Limited.
  • Countdown to WASSCE/SSCE, NECO, JME Chemistry, Uche, I. O.; Adenuga, I. J. and Iwuagwu, S. L. (2003). Ibadan: Evans.

Bolarinwa Olajire

An associate lecturer with demonstrated history of working in the education industry. Skilled in analytical skills, C++, Fortran, and Entrepreneurship. Strong education professional with a M. SC focused in condensed matter from University of Ibadan and PhD student at FUNAAB.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button