National Development – Components And Problems

National development planning is a long-term program designed to effect permanent structural changes in the economy. This is connected with government involvement in the economy, whereby it sets out objectives for how it wants the economy to develop in the future and then intervenes to try to achieve those objectives.

National development is the process by which a country improves its citizens’ social and economic well-being by providing amenities such as quality education, good roads, medical facilities, and other social infrastructure.

Read: National Integration and Factors Affecting It

Components of National Development

The Plan is structured around seven components:

  1. Economic growth and Development
  2. Infrastructure
  3. Public administration
  4. Human capital development
  5. Social development
  6. Regional development
  7. Plan Implementation, Communication, Financing, Monitoring, and Evaluation.

Under these components are areas dealing with all aspects of the Nigerian economy, ranging from Agriculture and Food Security, Integrated Rural Development, Manufacturing, Oil and Gas, Business Environment, Women and Gender Equity, Poverty Alleviation, Governance, Defence and Security, Environment and Climate Change, among others.

Problem of National Development Plan


Corruption is like a virus that has eaten deep into every system in the country, making development plans of no effect.

Inadequate Executive Capacity

Executive capacity involves competent contracting firms and basic socio-economic infrastructure, including competent hands to run the civil service and allied government machinery. Unfortunately, there are only a few skilled hands in these areas. The idea of favoritism instead of merit has given incapable hands an edge over competent ones.

Absence of relevant data

To execute a plan, there must be relevant data. This is why national planning relies basically on data. Nigeria is a country that is not data-driven, and it is almost impossible to get accurate data. The reason for relevant data emanated from the inadequacies of the federal office of statistics, the unwillingness of Nigerians to reveal information, and the outright manipulation of data for monetary or other gains.

Misplaced priorities

This is one of the major problems facing national development in Nigeria. Our government gives more priority to things that contribute little to the economic growth of the country. For example, the revamping of our petroleum refineries hasn’t been achieved despite many promises made by the government to achieve it.

Ways Corruption Has Hindered National Development

  1. It wipes out jobs.
  2. Corruption leads to inflation in the prices of goods and services.
  3. It drains the economy of resources that would have been used for the common good.
  4. It deepens the poverty level: the poor are denied services and basic facilities.
  5. It reduces the life span of citizens as the mortality rate increases.
  6. It creates uncertainty and risk in the growth and development of the country.
  7. Power struggles lead to the neglect of core duties and loss of lives.
  8. Political instability can lead to military coups and underdevelopment.
  9. Perversion of values/moral decadence in which the upright begin to doubt themselves.
  10. Nepotism/favoritism becomes the norm in society. This retards productivity.
  11. It weakens social and governmental enforcement mechanisms.
  12. It erodes national consciousness, pride, and a sense of commitment to the national course.
  13. It promotes materialistic tendencies in citizens and erodes other core positive values of the nation.
  14. It increases the crime rate in society, distorting the environment conducive to development.
  15. It creates bad image for the country.

Bolarinwa Olajire

A tutor with a demonstrated history of working in the education industry. Skilled in analytical skills. Strong education professional with a M. SC focused in condensed matter. You can follow me on Twitter by clicking on the icon below to ask questions.

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