In this article, I will define cultism in civic education and the general definition, types, and it effects. Cultism has become a major social problem in the Nigerian tertiary institutions as its activities and mode of operation are usually shrouded in secrecy.
What is Cultism in Civic Education
Cultism can be defined as a ritual practice by a group of people whose membership, initiation, policies, and activities are done secretly.
It can also be define as a form of organization whose activities are not only exclusively kept away from the knowledge of others but such activities are carried out at odd hours of the day and they often clash with the accepted norms and values of everyday life.
General definition according to Ajayi (2015): Cultism can be defined as a ritual practice by a group of people whose membership, admission, policy and initiation formalities as well as their mode of operations are done in secret and kept secret with their activities having negative effects on both members and non-members alike.
Effects and Disadvantages of Cultism
- Poor academic Performance: They experience poor academic performance in school. Cultists are also prone to longer years on Campus. They always occupied themselves with nocturnal activities at the detriment of the academic which result in the basket of carry-overs usually prolong their stay on campus. Also cults abandon their examinations for the fear of being attacked by members of rival cults or picked up by law enforcement agents. Thereby end up with automatic spill-over (final year) and beg of carry-overs. Almost all the cult clashes recorded occur during examination periods.
- Expulsion from School: Tertiary institutions have a very low tolerance for cult activities and so any student found belonging to a cult is usually expelled from the school.
- Life of Insecurity: A cultist lives a life of insecurity. He is not sure of the next momentous clashes can erupt any moment, time and place.
- Threat to Family: Cult clashes have actually gone beyond the perimeter fence of the Campuses to rival cult members home. A lot of the cult family members have been killed at their home for the escape of the son by their own cult group in course of leadership tussle and rival cut group in the case of clash.
- Mortgage of Liberty: The oath taken during the initiation implies that you have sold your liberty, freedom and everything about yourself to the cult organization. The allegiance to the cult authority is total. This means a cultist doesn’t have control over his or her life and to a reasonable extend the cult authority dictate or determine activities of their member.
- Disrupted Academic Programme: The violent activities of the cultist on campus have affected the educational development in the country. In most times the academic activities in the institutions are brought to a standstill as a result of the activities of these nocturnal groups.
- Threat to Cultist Academic: Every cultist stands the risk of being rusticated or expelled from school, so many cultists in the past have either been rusticated or expelled from various higher institutions across the country due to their involvement in cult activities.
- The Threat of Law Enforcement Agents: Cultists are living in perpetual fear of being arrested during and after cult clashes. A lot of cultist have abandon the education for their fear of being arrested after been named against cult operation.
Types of Cultism
According to Obamwonyi (2004), these are the types of cultism that exist in Nigeria.
- Black Axe
- Black beret fraternity
- Black Bra
- Black Cats
- Cappa Vendetto
- Daughters of Jazebel
- Eiye confraternity
- Green Beret Fraternity
- Klu Klux kan (kk) confraternity
- Knight Cadet
- Mgba Mgbo Brothers
- Musketeers fraternity
- Neo-Black Movement
- Ostrich fraternity
- Pyrates confraternity
- Red Sea Horses
- Royal Queens
- Sea Dogs
- Temple of Eden Fraternity
- Sun men
- The Amazons
- The Barracudas
- The Canary
- The Frigates
- The Dragons
- The Mafioso fraternity
- The Scorpion Fraternity
- The Soires fraternity
- The Vikings
- The Wairus
- Third Eye Confraternity
- Trojan Horse
- Oasis of the silhouette
- White Angels
- Lucifer knights
- Ayayi I. A., et al (2010). Menace of cultism in Nigeria tertiary institution: The way out
- Obamwonyi, S. E. (2004). Evaluation of security activities in tertiary institution in Nigeria: A case study of university of Benin. (Project paper Unpublished): Pp. 53-58.